From 6 March, visitors to the National Library's World Wide Web Server will have found a greatly expanded range of information about the Library and its activities.
An increasing number of people worldwide have access to the Internet through the World Wide Web. These people are now able to browse the Library's Server to discover information about its collections and services, to access a range of other information, including Australian government information, useful Internet navigation tools, and government policy information concerning the information superhighway.
Those interested in the Library's collections are now able to read the latest draft of the Library's collection development policy, browse a range of images from the Library's pictorial collections, search over 150 detailed finding aids to the manuscript collections, and discover a wealth of information about the Library's Australiana and Asian collections.
Libraries and other users of the Library's network services can quickly call up information about NDIS (the National Document and Information Service Project), read the latest issue of ABN news with Ozline news, check out recent ABN Standards Committee and Network Committee papers, or look up the charges for ABN, Ozline and other services. Likewise, those interested in the activities of the DNC Office, the National Preservation Office, or ACLIS will find information on the server, and the AIMA training calendars and course descriptions are available for those responsible for staff development in libraries.
A wealth of information on services offered by the Library is available, and the Library is using the "forms facility" of the server to extend many of those services. For instance, users can not only find out about the allocation of ISBNs and ISSNs, but can apply for a number using an online form. Similarly they will be able to order publications and merchandise from the NLA shop using an online order form, or fill in an online form to ask a reference question of the Library staff.
The information available via the Library's World Wide Web Server is not confined to information about the Library's own collections and services. The Server is a starting point for locating Australian government information on the Internet. It hosts the official Commonwealth Government Internet home page, and points to a wide range of other Commonwealth, State and local government information. It also has extensive links to overseas government information, in particular US Government Information. Policy makers and practitioners in the field of information policy will find a comprehensive set of pointers to the information infrastructure policies of Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The National Library aims to make its World Wide Web Server a significant resource of information sources that relate to Australia and its cultural, economic and technological development. Despite the wealth of information which it already contains, the server is not yet complete. Over the next few months, it will expand further to include new sources of information about library and information science related information, including standards and internet resources.
The server will be used extensively by the Library to communicate and consult with its users. The Library will use the server to seek comment on draft policy documents, to make available papers of interest to the Library community, e.g., papers prepared for the 3rd Round Table on Libraries and Asia were placed on the server prior to the meeting to generate discussion.
We invite all readers of Gateways to explore the server, if you haven't already done so. It can be found at http://www.nla.gov.au. Recent issues of Gateways can be found on the Server. Check them out at http://www.nla.gov.au/ntwkpubs/gatehome.html
For more detailed information about the Server, contact Diana Dack on (06) 262 1425 or e-mail: Diana Dack
The National Library has signed a contract with Innovative Interfaces Incorporated for the supply of the INNOPAC software to the Australian National Chinese Japanese Korean (CJK) System. The contract was signed by Eric Wainwright, Deputy Director-General of the National Library and Chair of the National CJK Steering Committee, and Jerry Kline, President of Innovative Interfaces, at the end of March. Under the contract, the software will be installed at the National Library in July.
The National CJK System is a co-operative project of seven Australian university libraries and the National Library. Once the System is operational, it is expected that more Australian and New Zealand libraries with CJK collections will join. The libraries will use the System to build a union catalogue of CJK material and as a source of copy cataloguing. It will provide full support for CJK characters and be available, at a charge, over the Internet.
The OPAC, cataloguing and CJK functions of INNOPAC will be installed with a number of significant enhancements to the software. The main enhancement will improve the record-matching capacity so that incoming records from sources such as Library of Congress, OCLC, RLIN, the National Diet Library and ABN can be checked against the CJK System's database on control numbers, year, place, edition and title. When a match is identified, the system will decide which is the higher quality record, and add, overlay or discard records as appropriate. Copies of the specification for this enhancement are available from the CJK Project Manager (address below).
Another important will interface MASS (Multilingual Application Support Service) with the INNOPAC software. MASS is a Unicode-based software product developed by the Institute of Systems Science at the National University of Singapore. It will be used for CJK character input and display on most of the workstations accessing the CJK System. The National Library of Australia has made a number of suggestions for improving the software and the Institute is expected to provide an enhanced version of MASS sometime in June.
A further significant enhancement will allow keyword searching on one and two character words.
Further information is available from: Linda Groom, National CJK Project Manager, National Library of Australia, ACT 2600. Ph: (02) 6262 1246; fax: (02) 6273 4327; e-mail: Linda Groom
The Director General of the National Library of Australia, Warren Horton, the National Librarian of the National Library of New Zealand, Peter Scott, and the Managing Director of CSC Australia, Peter Rehn, signed the Systems Integration contract for the National Document & Information Service (NDIS) Project on Friday, 31 March 1995.
Peter Scott, the National Librarian of the National Library of New Zealand; Peter Rehn, the Managing Director of CSC Australia; and Warren Horton, the Director General of the National Library of Australia
The signing of the Contract gave the green light for the next phase of the NDIS Project to begin.
Since November 1994, the National Libraries have worked with CSC Australia on Phase Zero, the analysis and design phase of the project. Phase One can now start building on this foundation, implementing all the elements of CSC's technical solution and resulting in the release of some services as early as next year.
In preparation for the signing of the Systems Integration contract, the two National Libraries and CSC Australia undertook an intensive review of the user specifications outlined in the Request For Tender (RFT). The review was undertaken to ensure that the key requirements of users and the business needs of the project were fully represented. The results of this review will be outlined in future editions of Gateways.
Analysis and Design
Phase 0, the analysis and design phase of the NDIS Project, has been underway since November 1994 and significant progress has been made in preparation for Phase 1, which will begin in April.
In January 1995, CSC Australia delivered to the Libraries a Technical Infrastructure Model which describes the hardware solution for the NDIS and how each component is linked together. After evaluation and revision this model has been completed and accepted. A "test bed" has been set up by CSC in their Canberra office using a RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) 6000 processor to ensure all the components work together.
During February, the Project Team completed work on two more key specification documents - a Data Model and a Business Process Model. Once accepted by the Libraries, these two documents will completely replace the Business Information Model in Appendix G of the Request for Tender (RFT). As part of this exercise, we have revisited every user requirement in the RFT to ensure that the scope of the requirement is fully understood and reflected in the model.
A major task for the Libraries and CSC has been to finalise the terms and conditions for the main Systems Integration Contract. While this contract requires further development to define the conditions applying to the separate systems considerable progress has been made towards the completion of the contract.
The reviewed RFT will document all scoping decisions (ie what's in and what's out) made during the evaluation phase and include the Libraries' revised implementation requirements. Each of the requirements were tested to ensure that there was a justifiable business need for including them in the two year project timeframe. We have identified other requirements for which there is no longer a business need and others which, while nice to have, would add significantly to the cost and complexity of the project. We plan to document our scoping decisions for each business area in the next few issues of Gateways and ABN news with Ozline news. Once the contract is signed we will also make the user requirements chapters in the reviewed RFT available to users.
The two Libraries are also currently engaged in an intensive business planning process to ensure the services NDIS delivers meet market needs. At the National Library of Australia the business plan is being managed by Bryony De La Motte. During January, two surveys were sent to users as input to this process.
A general survey was sent to all ABN and Ozline users asking a range of questions about their current and future business needs. The information gathered from this survey is already being fed into a database for analysis and will provide a primary source for determining priorities for each business area during the project and beyond.
In addition, a survey was sent to all current leased line users. The data from this survey will be used to produce a profile of the existing computer and communications environment at each user site and an indication of the users' plans for the next two years. This will assist the Libraries to ensure users can migrate smoothly to the new services.
Planning for user consultation
Throughout the project, the NDIS Development Team will continue to seek advice from users on a range of issues, including:
In the future, a small number of users from Australia and New Zealand will be invited to provide advice in each of the above areas as part of Phase 1 of the project.
Hardware and software requirements at user sites
Many of you have asked what hardware and software will be required for users to access the new NDIS services as they are implemented. Our key strategy is to provide high performance access to NDIS services via a state-of-the-art Graphical User Interface (a pictorial point and click interface such as Windows or the Macintosh interface). In order to support the development of such an interface, the NDIS will be based on what is known as a "Client Server" architecture.
In a Client Server architecture one computer (the client) seeks services from another computer (the server). Broadly speaking, the NDIS system will consist of a three-tiered Client Server architecture.
The Client Layer will consist of software on the user's microcomputer, or the user's local network. When installed on a local network, it will allow improved performance by distributing the computer processing across more than one tier of computers. It will also enable the cost effective addition of users to the network whilst maintaining performance. When installed on a user's microcomputer, it will also enable access to NDIS services via a Graphical User Interface.
It is planned that a variety of client devices, including Windows-based PC's, Apple Macintoshes, and X terminals will ultimately be supported by the NDIS. Windows and Macintosh interfaces will be developed as part of this project. The X-terminal interface has now been deferred to a post-implementation phase.
To reduce the complexity of the development process, the Windows interface will be given higher priority during the development of each service, with the Macintosh interface issued as a subsequent release. So, in Phase 1, the first product on the marketplace will be a Windows-based client for the searching and document requesting services, with the Macintosh client released in Phase 2.
To run the Windows version of the interface (and to make fullest use of the NDIS Service) it will be necessary to use a 486 PC, with a speed of at least 33 MHz and memory of at least 8Mb.
Where there is a cluster of users at the local site, there will be performance benefits in having a further processor to act as a "controller" or communications front end. This controller may be attached to a local area network. The controller software would run on a Unix processor or on a 486 or Pentium PC, with a speed of at least 66 MHz and memory of at least 16Mb.
The NLA Communications Manager, Chris Ballantyne, will be in charge of the user implementation project and will be able to advise users closer to the date of implementation of the most appropriate configuration at each site.
There will also be a text-based interface...
Also provided in Phase 1 will be a text based interface to provide access to NDIS services without the requirement of special software to be installed at user sites.
One way to access the search and document request functions of the NDIS without the need for special software will be provided by a Z39.50 server capability. This will enable users to access these functions via a third party Z39.50 client or via any World Wide Web client (e.g,. Lynx, Mosaic or Netscape) equipped with a Z39.50 gateway. This is a key part of our strategy for operating within the global network of information providers. The NDIS will have a Z39.50 server capability and it is intended to implement this during the two-year project timeframe. The NLA is also reviewing the business case for developing a Z39.50 gateway from its own WWW Home Page to the NDIS during the project timeframe.
However, when the Libraries reviewed these issues, it was decided that a text-based interface was also still needed, as the NDIS will provide a range of services additional to the searching and document requesting functions supported by the Z39.50 standard. A text based interface will therefore also be developed as part of Phase 1.
The text-based interface will allow users to migrate without necessarily upgrading their terminals. The ad hoc user will be able to access NDIS from a broad range of terminals (with basic VT100 emulation) and Macintosh and X-terminal users will be supported until the Macintosh and X-terminal clients are developed. Multiple devices accessing the NDIS via the text-based interface will still be able to be clustered to obtain the performance benefits of the Client Server architecture.
The full Graphical User Interface service will not be limited to the level of functionality that can be provided on the text-based service. Hence the text based interface to NDIS may be limited in some areas.
However, it is important to note that both the Graphical User Interface and the text based interface will provide users with access to a Z39.50 client capability - that is, they will both provide transparent gateway access to external information providers via Z39.50 protocols.
Specific questions regarding client software can be directed
to the NDIS Project Office on ph: 1800 026 155 (toll free) or (02) 6262 1549 or e-mail: Chris Ballantyne
Want to learn more about the NDIS Project, but don't know where to look?
Everyone is invited to subscribe to NDIS-L, the new listserv discussion list set up for people interested in the National Document and Information Service (NDIS) Project being undertaken jointly by the National Libraries of Australia and New Zealand.
The NDIS Project will develop services which will replace the current library systems of Australian Bibliographic Network, Ozline, New Zealand Bibliographic Network and Kiwinet. The new system will provide faster, more efficient document search, ordering and delivery facilities, as well as greatly improved cataloguing and indexing facilities.
To subscribe to NDIS-L send the message:
subscribe NDIS-L <your firstname> <your lastname>
Information on the NDIS Project is also available from the National Library of Australia's home page on the World Wide Web: http://www.nla.gov.au/2/NDIS/.
If you have any queries please call the ABN Help Desk on ph: 1800 026 155.
UnCover AUSTRALIA, a rapid document delivery service that supplies up-to-date information within hours of request, has recently extended its services.
UnCover AUSTRALIA enables you to search UnCover, a broad multi-disciplinary database that contains table of contents information for over 17,000 journal titles. Once requested, copies of articles found by searching the database will be faxed to you within 24 hours (usually sooner).
UnCover is now delivering articles to customers based in approximately 60 different countries, in all five continents. Users come from as far afield as Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Japan, Peru and Saudi Arabia. Australia and New Zealand account for approximately 68% of the total articles delivered overseas.
Complete allows you to order items from any periodical listed in UnCover, even if the items are not indexed in the database. This includes items from earlier issues of the journals in UnCover as well as items which are not always indexed, such as book reviews and letters to the editor.
Reveal is a table of contents alert service whereby you can create a list of journal titles in which you are interested. When the next issue of any of those titles is entered into the UnCover database, the table of contents is automatically sent to your Internet e-mail address. A recent enhancement also allows you to store search strategies for up to 25 topics or authors in your profile. Once a week, UnCover runs your strategies against UnCover and e-mails the matching citations to you. This service costs A$28.00 per profile per year and A$13.50 (plus a variable copyright fee imposed by UnCover) per document. Articles cited in the table of contents may be ordered for delivery by reply e-mail or fax.
Comparing costs -UnCover AUSTRALIA versus UnCover direct
Whether you are an occasional user or a "volume" user of the UnCover database, UnCover AUSTRALIA offers you a cheaper rate for document delivery than accessing UnCover directly.
UnCover AUSTRALIA will cost you A$10.50 per document (plus a variable copyright fee imposed by UnCover). If you search the database throughout the ABN gateway, an additional charge of A$0.16 per minute will apply but if you telnet via the Internet, there re no searching charges.
UnCover charges on average US$8.50 per document and approximately US$4.00 for faxing it to you (plus a variable copyright fee imposed by UnCover). Based on a US exchange rate of $0.73, this is equivalent to a little over A$17.00 per document.
For a 5 minute search of the UnCover database, the cost per document using UnCover AUSTRALIA compared to accessing UnCover directly is:
UnCover AUSTRALIA via telnet A$10.50
UnCover AUSTRALIA via ABN gateway A$11.30 UnCover direct A$17.00
UnCover S.O.S. (Single Order Source) is for those who wish to order documents without searching the database. You need to set up an S.O.S. profile with UnCover but once this is established you may send your orders by fax, e-mail or phone. The S.O.S. staff verify that the article can be supplied through UnCover and confirm your order within 2 hours. The charge for orders is US$10.00 plus a US$4.00 fax charge as well as a variable copyright fee.
Table of Contents Re-distribution Service
Tired of making multiple photocopies of the table of contents from every journal in your library's collection to manually route to researchers, faculty members or staff? Do you have requests for alert service for journals that your library doesn't carry?
With the Re-distribution Service you can receive tables of contents from journals at a central location and re-route the material to individuals within your organisation. Any number of titles in the UnCover database may be selected. The information is sent to the central location by e-mail or via FTP as soon as the next issue is checked into the UnCover database, usually within 24 hours of its receipt at the UnCover office. You may re-distribute the table of contents by e-mail or fax, or store it for a specified length of time in a central data file accessible to your institution's users.
The cost is US$8.00 per title per year with an additional set-up fee of US$250.00 is charged if programming is required, e.g. setting up an FTP process or customising messaging within the table of contents. Quotes for special services will be provided for extensive customization requirements.
For more information on S.O.S. and the Re-distribution service, contact Brenda Bailey,
Marketing and Client Liaison The UnCover Company, 3801 E. Florida Ave. #200 Denver, CO 80210. e-mail: Brenda Bailey.
For more information on UnCover AUSTRALIA, contact the Network Services Help Desk on 1800 026 155 or (02) 6262 1531, fax (06) 2731180, e-mail Help Desk
Information on UnCover AUSTRALIA is also available from the National Library of Australia's home page on the World Wide Web: http://www.nla.gov.au/uncover/uncover.html
The 3rd National Roundtable on Libraries and Asia was held on Thursday 16 February 1995 at the National Library. The meeting followed successful Roundtables in 1991 and 1993, which were instrumental in a number of significant initiatives, including the National Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) Languages Project, the ACLIS-funded Asian database survey, and the Asian Studies Library Award (ASLA) scheme.
Some seventy five librarians, academics, and government officials from around Australia attended the 3rd Roundtable. A number of scholars participated, including the current President of the Asian Studies Association of Australia, Professor Beverley Hooper and former President, Professor Colin Mackerras. Librarians attending came mainly from university and state libraries, with strong representation from library schools.
In planning the Roundtable, the National Library received valuable advice on the overall direction of the meeting, structure and issues from an Asian Roundtable Reference Group of librarians and academics, which consulted by teleconference. Preparation for the meeting also included the production of three main documents. These were the DNC Office's Status Report on Collection Strengths in Asian Library Collections and the Results of the DNC Asian Library Materials Survey, December 1994, plus Issues Papers including recommendations prepared by speakers.
It was agreed by the Reference Group that the Roundtable should have a focus on South Asia, to redress the balance for this region which is of growing importance to Australia. It was also decided that there be a focus on DNC elements of collection development, bibliographic control, preservation and access to Asian materials.
There were four main sessions at the Roundtable, following a welcome by the NLA Director-General, Warren Horton, and introduction by the Deputy Director-General, Eric Wainwright. In the first session on Asian studies in Australia, Professor Hooper spoke about trends and prospects; Professor Max Brennan, Chairman of the Australian Research Council addressed the funding of Asian research, while Professor Robin Jeffrey of La Trobe University looked at future directions for Australian research on South Asia.
The second session provided an overview of developments since the 2nd Roundtable. Cliff Law, Director, DNC Office, analysed the results of the DNC collection development survey; Linda Groom, National CJK Project Manager, discussed the CJK Project; and Julia Trainor Director, National Bibliographic Services, NLA spoke about bibliographic control of Asian materials nationally.
The session on future directions for Asian library services in Australia consisted of papers by John Horacek of La Trobe University Library on South Asian collection needs; Alex Byrne, Chief Librarian, Northern Territory University on the DNC and collecting agreements; Dr Warwick Cathro, Assistant Director-General, Services to Libraries, NLA and Dr Matthew Ciolek, Networked Information Resources Administrator, Coombs Computing Unit, ANU on the future for networking and the Internet in Australia and the region; and Ms Chooi-Hon Ho of Monash University Library on training and staffing needs for Asian library services in Australia.
The syndicate groups considered draft resolutions regarding South Asia; collection development and collection agreements; networking and the Internet; training, staff and competencies; preservation of Asian materials; and bibliographic control.
The draft resolutions passed by the Roundtable are being circulated widely and will be finalised after further refinement, including further teleconference discussion by the Reference Group.
In response to the phenomenal growth of Australian electronic journals on the Internet, the National Library of Australia is developing strategies to identify and provide access to this increasingly important information resource.
Electronic journals (ejournals) are a new form of publishing and there is, at present, no central authoritative list of Australian titles. To locate ejournals, Internet users have had to search through a growing number of sites, scan new titles lists or seek information on resources from colleagues or other users. The rapid pace of change of electronic resources makes the few paper format directories that are available obsolete as soon as they are published.
To improve access to Australian ejournals, staff from the Library's Australian Collection Development Unit have compiled an index of titles by periodically searching sites on World Wide Web, and consulting widely, by electronic mail, with Internet users from other institutions.
The draft index of Australian ejournals has been published on electronic bulletin boards in Australia and abroad. Publishing the index encouraged vigorous discussion of this new resource as well as notification of new Australian titles and changes to a number of titles already recorded.
Access to Australian ejournals will be further enhanced when the index is made available through the Library's Information Server, currently being established and expected to be available in March.
The index of Australian ejournals will be maintained by the National Library as an ongoing service to provide access to a wide range of electronic resources. The index will be shortly enhanced by hypertext links which will provide direct access to the contents of journals themselves.
All titles in the index will be catalogued for inclusion in the National Bibliographic Database to provide access to this new and exciting form of Australian publishing to as wide an audience as possible.
For more information contact: Michael Proud on (02) 6262 1131 or e-mail: Michael Proud
The Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) program of the National Library, which provides cataloguing data to publishers for inclusion in their publications, has now been operating for more than 20 years. Recently the Library conducted a survey of publishers and libraries to obtain information that would assist with future planning for the program.
The survey was conducted in two parts. Part 1 was a survey of libraries and part 2 was a survey of publishers participating in the CIP program.
Survey of libraries
The survey of libraries sought information on the value of CIP to libraries and whether the current services and products are still appropriate.
With advice from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the NLA selected a random sample of libraries to be surveyed from 2478 school and 1926 general libraries. Of the 498 libraries included in the survey, 68.3% were school libraries and 31.7% were general libraries. Of the responses received, however 57.1% were from school libraries and 42.9% from general libraries.
Overall the response to the survey was below expectations, at only 27.9% and this may reduce the value of applying the results to libraries in general.
Of all the records libraries add to their catalogues for Australian material, approximately 39.3% are cataloguing in publication entries and 20.8% of these are being added to library catalogues without change.
While 43.6% of libraries obtain their CIP data from ABN (including online and in products), and 15.9% from other sources, 77.8% of the libraries responding indicated that they obtained CIP data from the published item on some occasions. Overall, the figures could indicate that up to 30% of libraries may obtain CIP data only from the published item.
Libraries found CIP most useful for mainstream publishing categories such as trade book publishing, university press and government publishing. In particular, four publisher groups scored more than 70% of the combined useful and very useful scores: general trade book publisher (82.6%); university press (77.3%); state or local government agency (72.5%) and federal government agency (71.4%).
Respondents to the survey also identified several categories of material not currently included in the CIP program, but for which CIP would be useful including video disks/tapes (89.6%), kits (85.6%), audio disks/tapes (80.2%), and interactive multimedia packages (76.6%). The Library will as a result assess the feasibility of providing CIP to these and other categories of material.
As expected, the most important use for CIP in libraries was cataloguing, particularly copy cataloguing but other uses included collection development and selection activities. While more than 90% indicated that CIP was not needed prior to the item being published, the importance of CIP for cataloguing would indicate that ideally CIP data should be available as soon as the book has been published.
Most libraries indicated that Dewey Decimal Classification numbers, main entry, and subject headings were the most important elements in the CIP entry. Libraries collecting fiction were also asked whether the addition of subject headings would be useful and more than 90% indicated yes.
Recommendations arising from the survey of Libraries:
The survey of publishers sought information on levels of participation in the program, satisfaction with the service and future publishing intentions, particularly in the production of electronic publications.
A total of 468 questionnaires were distributed and 188 responses received, an overall response rate of 40.2%. Again, the level of response was somewhat below expectations.
Most publishers (79.3%) submit every publication to the NLA for CIP. They indicated that a turnaround time of between 5-10 days is the maximum time they could allow for preparation of CIP data. Some publishers said that they would prefer even shorter turnaround times but acknowledged that the CIP unit responds positively to urgent requests.
While only 16% of publishers had produced items on CD-ROM or disk (they were asked how many computer software programs and/or databases they had produced on CD or floppy disk), 36.6% indicated they would be publishing software, CDs or other electronic publications in the next 5 years.
In addition, publishers who published works of fiction were asked if they would be able to provide subject information such as setting, topic, characters and genre. Of the 25.3% who published fiction, 97.9% indicated that this would be possible.
Recommendations arising from the Publisher Survey:
Information Services in the Library's Main Reading Room are not just about books. As the NLA's main service point for most of the Library's readers, the Main Reading Room receives requests for services from the simplest "Do you hold" enquiry to sophisticated Electronic Document Delivery.
The Information Desk is centrally located at the entrance to the reading room. It is staffed by reference librarians with access to ABN, Ozline, the Internet, and of course the Library's own online catalogue. Reference staff help readers make the most effective use of the Library's collections, and if necessary can call on subject specialists. They can also refer readers to relevant resources provided by other libraries or information services.
Access to information about NLA's holdings is through the Dynix-based online catalogue. During busy parts of the year staff from Technical Services act as Catalogue Rovers to give readers extra assistance with searches. A taped guide to Author-Title searching on the catalogue is also available on request.
The Information Desk also provides Readers guides to assist with finding information on complex subjects such as parliamentary papers and law. So far the Readers Guides contain 22 titles and more are in preparation. In addition, the reader education program includes talks about our collections and services.
To retrieve the item from the stacks the reader hands in a completed call slip to the Service Desk. The Library has further updated their item retrieval system with the installation of a new book lift which has cut down the delivery time considerably.
If the reader is unable to find their topic in a specific book listed in the catalogue, then the reference collection offers over 6,000 titles consisting of encyclopedias, dictionaries, or indexing and abstracting services. The Main Reading Room also has access to a wide variety of electronic information. A substantial collection of networked CD-ROMs are available for public use and for the more complex reference enquiry, Reference Staff conduct paid online searches.
Education and Public Programs
January, 1995. Children's Holiday Workshop. 'Drawing the Face'
The National Portrait Gallery is a rich educational resource. Portraits offer opportunities for students of all ages to learn something about Australian history and society.
Exhibitions and education programs at the National Portrait Gallery raise questions about how we see ourselves as individuals, as communities and as a nation. A full range of informal and formal school-based education programs, workshops and lectures, drawing on the National Portrait Gallery exhibition program is planned. Specific aspects of education include services to schools and higher education institutions, services for families and other visitors, the establishment of links with the community, outreach programs and touring exhibitions.
The formal education programs are designed to encourage students to look at, identify and discuss works of art; to become aware of the links between the visual arts, Australian history and cultural life; and to introduce students to portraits as historical documents of social organisation, while familiarising them with the development of portrait art within the context of Australian art history.
The curatorial thesis of the recent exhibition All in the Family : Selected Australian Portraits
(1 October 1994 - 13 February 1995) used portraiture to trace changes in Australian family life. A critical 'reading' of portraits exhibited in this exhibition allow students to gain an appreciation of the diverse and changing aspects of Australian society as well as meet high profile Australians from all walks of life. The collection also represents a variety of visual art media, from traditional Aboriginal culture to the present.
On a visit to the National Portrait Gallery students are encouraged to interpret the visual language of portraiture, to draw conclusions about projected social values, time and place in Australian history and to name particular aspects of the works which carry the interpreted meaning.
Portrait Workshops for children covering a broad age range are conducted through the school holidays. Based on the Gallery's exhibition program, the children's workshops offer an informal program with 'hands on' activities such as drawing and storytelling.
Portraits in the Making workshops are being planned to bridge the gap between studio practice and art history. They will focus on working processes, materials and techniques and portrait production. In short, the possibilities for learning are far reaching and in keeping with the National Library's education program, the collections of the National Portrait Gallery will be made accessible to as many people as possible.
One of the most important roles for the National Portrait Gallery, as stressed by the Prime Minister in his speech opening the first exhibition, is to provide programs for areas outside Canberra. At this stage the NLA cannot tour the exhibitions which are shown at Old Parliament House, so an alternative program of exhibitions based on reproduction prints of portraits in photography has been devised. These prints can be toured not only to regional galleries but also to other venues in remote communities which do not have appropriate environmental conditions for exhibiting original work.
A circular letter was sent to 93 regional galleries, museums and other exhibiting venues seeking expressions of interest for four travelling exhibition concepts. One concept, Painting Australia received overwhelming support, and accordingly it has gone into development. This is an exhibition of photographs of Australian artists, with an emphasis on contemporary (ie after 1950) practitioners. It will include painters, sculptors and printmakers.
Provided that funding is received from Visions Australia the exhibition will travel to at least 13 venues at this stage, in NSW, Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania, with the official opening to take place in a regional centre.
With current expressions of interest and tentative bookings, the exhibition will tour until the end of 1996 or the beginning of 1997.
Greg Weight: Margaret Olley 1991. Gelatin silver photograph
It is every curator's dream to see their exhibition travel. Static exhibitions don't seem to reap the same satisfaction for the curator because of their limited lifespan, especially in the light of the extensive research and sometimes painful decisions required to select material. Travelling or touring exhibitions seem to have more prestige because they run for longer and reach a wider audience. They also expose the material and themes to a more diverse public as they move around capital cities, regional centres, historic buildings, art galleries, museums and libraries.
On the other side of the coin, touring exhibitions can create headaches for the registrar. Sometimes detailed arrangements are in place before the registrar has had the opportunity to check out critical considerations like security, insurance and environmental conditions.
What is involved in getting a touring exhibition on the road? In a larger collecting institution, curators, exhibition managers, registrars and conservators work together to set minimum standards required for movement, storage and exhibition at outside venues. If the borrowing institution has not previously dealt with the lending one, then information is requested in the form of a facilities report. This covers brief details on the aims and history of the management body, the building structure, air conditioning, fire protection, security, display systems, staffing (what specialist skills and experience is available) and promotional/educational programs.
Preparation of the works for exhibition starts only when the tender and borrower have agreed about conditions at the venue and the payment of the costs of packing, insurance and transport. Preparation can involve anything from minor conservation, matting and framing, the making of individual display supports, insulated purpose-built crates may have to be made (for tours to more than one venue). Framed works have an individual padded 'slot' in a crate to avoid loosing any loose packing. It also makes unpacking and re-packing much quicker. Within Australia, material is transported by road or air, depending on access, distance, fragility and costs. Valuable or fragile items may even be hand carried by courier between venues.
All in all extensive planning and co-ordination between people with a wide range of expertise is required. Consequently museums need to plan well ahead and usually require from 3 - 12 months notice to get the 'show on the road'.
The Library has been fortunate in acquiring the oldest substantial Australian literary manuscript known to have survived. Although some manuscripts of poems written in the very early years of Sydney are held in the National Library and the Mitchell Library, the manuscript of Ralph Rashleigh, written in about 1845, is the earliest draft of an Australian novel. In fact, it may be the only surviving example of a manuscript of a major nineteenth century novel: such manuscripts were usually sent to Britain and vanished after publication.
Unlike His Natural Life or Robbery under Arms, Ralph Rashleigh was not published until long after the death of the author. It only came to light in 1920, by which time it was somewhat tattered and stained, yet miraculously complete. It was published in London in 1929 and the first Australian edition appeared in 1952. Since then it has never been out of print and thousands of students and general readers have enjoyed one of the very few first hand accounts of convict life in New South Wales.
The name of the author that appears on the title page, 'Giacomo di Rosenberg', was clearly a pseudonym. In about 1950 Colin Roderick, who was then on the staff of Angus and Robertson, analysed both the handwriting and the content of the novel and, after a great deal of research in the New South Wales Archives, identified the writer as James Tucker. Tucker, who had received a classical education at Stonyhurst College, was transported in 1826 for writing a blackmail letter. He served his sentence at Sydney, Emu Plains, Maitland and elsewhere. At the time that he wrote his novel he was storekeeper to the Superintendent at Port Macquarie. The manuscript was written on Government paper. It seems to have passed at some stage into the hands of Alexander Burnett, an official whom Tucker had known for many years.
Colin Roderick, who edited the 1952 edition of Ralph Rashleigh, subsequently purchased the manuscript and had it bound in half Morocco with marble boards. The National Library has had a long and fruitful association with Professor Roderick. In 1965 Professor Roderick transferred to the Library the guardbooks containing all his research materials on Ralph Rashleigh. The Library has now purchased from Professor Roderick the manuscript itself.
While there are still some doubts about the authorship, it is generally agreed that the novel is of importance both as a work of literature and as an historical source. The literary historian Morris Miller described it as 'a fascinating human document. The author writes in vigorous language and... indulges little in exaggeration, even when he describes hairbreadth escapes and De Rougemont-like episodes'. James Tucker now joins Rolf Boldrewood, Henry Handel Richardson, Martin Boyd, Patrick White, Christina Stead, Thomas Keneally, David Malouf and Peter Carey among the major Australian novelists represented in the Library's manuscript collection.
The Library's policy on Australian education curriculum material is currently under review. As part of this review process the Australian Collection Development Unit is conducting a survey into the publishing, collecting and preservation of Australian educational material.
The major aim of the survey is to gain some insight into:
Implementation of the survey has involved the construction of two questionnaires. One intended for the publishers / producers of educational material, the other for libraries and collectors of this material. The questionnaires were trailed in December and the final version was mailed to 450 educational institutions and organisations in mid January.
The address list for the survey attempted to cover a broad sample of the education sector and included universities, private education institutions, TAFE, State Education Departments, national bodies, libraries and teaching associations. Commercial publishers were not included.
Australian education and curriculum materials is a broad and complex area. Educational institutions cover a wide range of subjects, disciplines and levels.
Within one organisation a number of different areas may be responsible for producing or collecting educational material. The situation is further complicated by amalgamations and remote campuses as in the tertiary sector.
Educational material is produced in a complex range of formats. One consequence of new technology is that it has become much easier for educational associations, institutions and teachers to produce their own educational materials and resources using desktop publishing, graphics generation and in-house database production.
The responses from the questionnaires are currently being processed and replies are still coming in. While further investigation may be required it is hoped that the survey will provide some useful information. This information will be analysed and recommendations made outlining the preferred role for the NLA in the collection of provision of access to educational material.
Results of the survey will be made available in due course. Comments and enquires should be directed to: Richard Stone ph: (02) 6262 1306, Richard Stone
Erica Ryan, Senior Librarian, Gift & Exchange Unit
There have been plans for a PNG acquisitions trip for at least a decade, as a means of resuscitating National Library of Australia contacts in PNG and to establish reliable supply sources. Although I have worked almost exclusively in acquisitions areas since I joined the Library in 1989, the Pacific was unchartered territory for me and looked set to be an adventure.
Up until Independence in 1975, the National Library received gratis copies of all PNG publications under the legal deposit provisions of Australian Copyright legislation. Since the administrative break from Australia, however, the PNG collection has not continued to develop as it might have otherwise and the Library has relied on contacts made through the Gift & Exchange Unit, supplemented by purchases through library suppliers such as the International Subscription Agency (ISA) Australia. Our contact has diminished and PNG acquisitions have proven difficult.
Colin Baker (University Librarian, PNG University of Technology (Unitech)) - formerly of ISA and Armidale CAE) and I travelled for six days through four provinces by 4WD and small plane to a wide range of publishers and libraries. We visited more than twenty agencies, including:
Unitech, The Lutheran Mission and Martin Luther Seminary, Forest Research Institute and Lae Public Library (all in Lae); Kristen Press (Madang); The PNG Coffee Research Institute (Kainantu); The PNG Branch of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (Ukarumpa); Melanesian Institute of Pastoral & Socio Economic Service; PNG Medical Research Institute; The Coffee Industry Corporation; and Eastern Highlands Public Library (all in Goroka); The University of PNG Goroka and Port Moresby campuses; The PNG National Library & Archive; National Museum & Art Gallery; Department of Communication & Information; Government Printer's Office; The National Research Institute; United Nations Development Programme; Independent Books and IMPS Research Ltd (all in Port Moresby).
The trip was a terrific opportunity for the National Library to restate Australian interest in the region and to see first-hand the conditions under which libraries operate in Papua New Guinea. It was encouraging to see how much is achieved under difficult circumstances, and satisfying to make personal contacts in the region. We hope that Australian libraries will co-operative with PNG publishers and in doing so, improve access to the wide range of material which is published in Papua New Guinea each year.
Choir practice starts early each morning at The Kings School and the sound wafts across the playing fields into the Cambridge University Library. A wonderful introduction to Cambridge. From May through to July 1994, I was on a placement arranged with the main Library of the University of Cambridge and supported by the National Library of Australia.
Evidence of a University library collection in Cambridge dates back to as early as 1416 and working in an institution so old was, at first, a daunting prospect. The history of collecting at the University and the academic fondness for tradition has resulted in a library system which initially seemed unfathomable. The University Library's collection is housed within one building and occupies over 80 miles of shelf-storage (c. 5 million monographs, 100,000 periodicals plus maps and music). The collection expands by an estimated 1.5 miles per year. Working mostly in the acquisitions areas, I was constantly surprised by how much was achieved by so few staff.
I worked on the Australian Joint Copying Project in London over 1990-91 and through that association, was able to pick up on a residual AJCP project work in Cambridge. Hopefully my activities will result in new microfilmed collections for the National Library. Hand lists were prepared from archival collections at the University Library (Royal Greenwich Observatory Collection ex Hertmonceux Castle) and at the Scott Polar Research Institute (Library and Archive). This was wonderful work and I was able to identify a wide range of materials of Australian interest - 18th, 19th and 20th century official and personal correspondence and documentation, personal diaries and remembrances, photographs, and sketchbooks. Subjects included astronomy and the Transit of Venus in 1874 and 1882, including expeditions to Australia, New Zealand and the "largely unknown Southern Continents"; the establishment and equipping of Australian and New Zealand observatories; Charles Todd's survey and telegraphy work in New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria; the establishment of Sydney and Melbourne Universities; observations and comments on the progress in the Australian colonies; navigation and voyages of discovery in New Holland, Van Diemen's Land and the Antarctic. The names were a dazzling mix and included William Denison, Charles Todd, Neville Maskelyne, George Biddell Airy, Matthew Flinders, William Christie, Ernest Shackleton, John King, William Bligh, Tannatt Edgeworth David, Ernest Shackleton, Raymond Priestly, Hartley Ferrar, Robert Falcon Scott, Douglas Mawson, John King Davis, Herbert Wilkins, Eric Webb, John Rymill and various other 'Antarcticers'.
The Cambridge placement was a wonderful opportunity which allowed me to work with material I might never have otherwise seen. I would thoroughly recommend a similar placement to any other interested person.
Mr Kim's secondment is supported by the Australia - Korea Foundation, and Mr Gu's placement is supported by the Australia - China Council.
The aim of these visits is:
The National Library welcomes Mr Kim and Mr Gu and hopes they find their secondment a pleasant and worthwhile experience.
An album kept by Emily Macarthur (1806-80) was recently acquired by the Pictorial Section.
Artist: Emily Macarthur. Portrait of Elizabeth Macarthur
Emily was the wife of James Macarthur of Camden Park, and the daughter-in-law of the famous John and Elizabeth Macarthur. A gifted amateur artist, Emily preserved in this album her own drawings and watercolours depicting scenes in England, views around Camden and Sydney, and portraits of family members. Most of the works by Emily were executed between the years 1827 and 1868, and so illustrate a very early and important era in colonial Australian history from the point of view of one of our foremost pioneer families.
Besides the drawings by Emily, the album includes some watercolours tentatively attributed to Conrad Martens, who was the drawing teacher of Emily's daughter, Elizabeth, and 15 rare photographs of early members of the Macarthur family, including a portrait of James Macarthur.
This is one of five known sketchbooks kept by Emily Macarthur. The others are still in private collections.
(Below left) Old school house at Camden, (Below right) St. John's Church Camden.
The Twenty-third Annual Map Circle Conference was held in the pleasant surroundings of the University of New England, Armidale, 5-9 February, 1995.
The theme of this year's conference was "Mapping the Environment" with some thirteen papers examining both current and retrospective issues relating to the use of maps in accessing the environment we all live in.
Setting the theme for the Conference was the Keynote Paper by Graham Baker, Secretary, Australian and New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC). Titled Towards a National Land and Geographic Data Infrastructure the paper described a model for a national land and geographic data infrastructure comprising four components: an institutional framework -defining policy and administrative arrangements; technical standards; fundamental datasets and a distribution network which makes it all available to the community. ANZLIC's role in addressing these issues was also discussed.
Developments in digital spatial data and their impact on traditional paper/film collections currently in libraries dominated three of the following five papers. Availability, cost, hardware and software requirements, advanced training by both staff and readers in Geographic Information Systems and Copyright were addressed by Alan Jones and Dorothy Prescott. John Roberts spoke of changes occurring to the Sydney University Map Collection. The Library's Map Curator, Maura O'Connor, discussed her vision for the future of the Map Collection in the light of the Strategic Plan along with known developments in digital spatial data and Government policy. Ian Paxton of the NSW Land Information Centre outlined recent developments at the Centre, while Nick Rollings of the University of New England explained the use of Compact Airborne Spectographic Imagery in mapping water quality.
The second day was largely devoted to applications of digital spatial data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to particular projects. One interesting paper stressed the importance and significance of maps for dealing with natural disasters such as floods, bushfires and cyclones. Another looked at the importance of GIS in mapping for biological conservation.
The third day saw the participants take a break from the intensity of all day seminars and explored the three National Parks that embrace the northern end of the New England Tableland with an interesting break for lunch at the Dutton Trout hatchery.
The fourth and final day of the Conference produced two interesting papers, one concerned with the Robertson Land Act of 1861 which saw the beginning of the end of the squatting era in New South Wales and the distribution of Crown Grants. Dr John Atchison spoke on the development of a Place Names project with involvement by libraries, including the National Library, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping.
The next Conference of the Australian Map Circle will be held in Canberra, February 1996.
In December 1994 the Library purchased, at auction in London, a photograph album recording the visit to Australia in 1948 of Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh with the Old Vic Theatre Company. On this tour they performed various plays by Shakespeare and by Thornton Wilder.
There are approximately 590 photographs in the album, (mainly snapshots) about two hundred featuring the Oliviers, and a few portrait photographs.
The photographs document the activities of the members of the company. They are seen playing deck quoits on board ship, sightseeing, visiting Sydney and the outback, swimming, sunbathing, picnicking and greeting visitors backstage in dressing rooms. The Oliviers themselves are seen staying at Government House in Canberra.
It is likely that this album was once the personal possession of the Oliviers, as the initials "L.& V.O." are embossed in gold on the morocco cover.
This is a fascinating addition to the Library's holdings of photographs and other records of the performing arts in Australia.
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